Present simple and continuous rules PDF
Tenses PDF Grammar rules with examples on all English tenses.
English grammar PDF All PDF grammar rules on this website.
Present simple tense
Positive statement: I play, He plays
Negative statement: I do not play (I don't play), He does not play (He doesn't play)
Questions: Do you play? Does he play?
Negative questions: Do you not play? (Don't you play?) Does he not play? (Doesn't he play?)
We only use -s ending (plays) and -es ending (does) in the third person singular.
The auxiliary verb do is not used to make:
1. Indirect questions and reported questions.
2. Questions and negative statements with modal verbs and the verb to be.
Can you sing? Must I come? I cannot swim. He mustn't stay.
Are you a student? Is he in London? I am not at home. He is not happy.
Read more: Verb to be Present simple
Wh - questions:
If the wh- pronoun introducing the question (who, which) is the subject of the question, we do not use the auxiliary verb do. Compare the following sentences.
Who knows you? (who is the subject)
Which cars belong to you? (which cars is the subject)
But: Who do you know? (who is the object)
The negative questions normally express a surprise.
Doesn't he work?
We add -es to the verb that ends in ss, sh, ch, x and o: miss - misses, fix - fixes, go - goes.
If the verb ends in a consonant and -y we change -y into -i and add -es: carry - carries, try - tries.
But: play - plays, because it ends in a vowel and -y.
1. We use the present simple tense for activities that happen again and again (every day, sometimes, ever, never).
Examples: I sometimes go to school by bike. You don't speak Greek. Do they get up early?
He often travels. She doesn't work. Does she ever help you?
2. We use it for facts that are always true.
Our planet moves round the sun. Lions eat meat.
3. With a future time expression (tomorrow, next week) it is used for planned future actions (timetables).
The train leaves at 8.15. They return tonight.
Present continuous tense
Positive statement: I am playing, You are playing, He is playing
Negative statement: I am not playing (I'm not playing), You are not playing (You aren't playing), He is not playing (He isn't playing)
Questions: Are you playing? Is he playing?
Negative questions: Are you not playing? (Aren't you playing?) Is he not playing? (Isn't he playing?)
It is formed with the verb to be + -ing. The negative questions normally express a surprise.
Isn't he working?
1. We use the present continuous tense for activities that are happening just now.
Examples: I am learning English at the moment. You aren't listening! Why is he sitting here?
2. We use it for an action happening about this time (today, this week), but not necessarily at the moment of speaking. It is a temporary activity.
I am in London. I am staying at the hotel. (But just now you can be somewhere else.)
She can't go out. She is writing her essay today. (But she can be having lunch at the moment.)
You can't borrow this book today. Mary is reading it. (But not right now.)
3. With a future time expression (soon, on Monday) it is used for definite arrangements in the near future. The present continuous tense is more personal than the simple present tense, because
it expresses the speaker's plan.
I am leaving soon. We are meeting on Monday.