See also PDF exercises below.
Exercise 1 Verb to be - complete dialogues.
Exercise 2 Questions (do, does) - complete the conversation.
Exercise 3 Negative (don't, doesn't) - choose correct forms.
Exercise 4 The third person (-s, -es, -ies endings) - complete the story.
Exercise 5 All forms (positive, negative, questions) - complete dialogues.
For beginners and elementary students of English as a second language.
Present simple - grammar rules PDF
Positive statement: I play, He plays
Negative statement: I do not play (I don't play), He does not play (He doesn't play)
Questions: Do you play? Does he play?
Negative questions: Do you not play? (Don't you play?) Does he not play? (Doesn't he play?)
Negative questions normally express a surprise.
Doesn't he work?
If the wh- pronoun introducing the question (who, which) is the subject of the question, we do not use the auxiliary verb do. Compare the following sentences.
Who knows you? (who is the subject)
Which cars belong to you? (which cars is the subject)
Who do you know? (who is the object)
Which cars do you like? (which cars is the object)
The third person singular
We use -s ending (plays) and -es ending (goes) in the third person singular.
Peter plays tennis.
My son goes to primary school.
In questions we use does in the third person singular + the bare infinitive (= play, not plays).
Does Peter play tennis?
We add -es to the verb that ends in ss, sh, ch, x and o.
miss - misses, fix - fixes, go - goes
If the verb ends in a consonant and -y we change -y into -i and add -es.
carry - carries, try - tries
But play - plays, because it ends in a vowel and -y.
The verb to be
The verb to be has completely different forms.
Positive: I am, you are, he - she - it is, we are, they are
Short forms: I'm, you're, he's, she's, it's, we're, they're
I am from India. He is ill. They are funny.
Negative: I am not, you are not, he - she - it is not, we are not, they are not
Short forms: I'm not, you aren't (you're not), he - she - it isn't (he's not, she's not, it's not), we aren't (we're not), they aren't (they're not)
I am not hungry. He is not English. They are not here.
Questions: Am I? Are you? Is he - she - it? Are we? Are they?
Negative questions: Am I not? Are you not? Is he - she - it not? Are we not? Are they not?
Short forms: Aren't you? Isn't he - she - it? Aren't we? Aren't they?
Am I your friend? Is he in London? Are they at school?
Am I not your friend? Is he not in London? Are they not at school? (Isn't he in London? Aren't they at school?)
The auxiliary verb do, does is not used to make questions or negative forms.
Can you sing? Must I come?
I cannot swim. He mustn't stay.
1. We use the present simple tense for activities that happen again and again (everyday, sometimes, ever, never).
I sometimes go to school by bike. You don't speak Greek. Do they get up early?
He often travels. She doesn't work. Does she ever help you?
2. We use it for facts that are always true.
Our planet moves round the sun. Lions eat meat.
3. With a future time expression (tomorrow, next week) it is used for planned future actions (timetables).
The train leaves at 8.15. They return tonight.