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English grammar books PDF
PDF book 1: English grammar exercises PDF
PDF book 2: English grammar rules PDF
PDF exercises with answers to download for free.
- Complete sentences:
"It is too late." - I said it was too late.
- A multiple choice choice test:
"Sam may contact you." - He said Sam might contact me.
- Reported speech to direct speech:
She said she lived in York. - "I live in York," she said.
- Time in reported speech:
We will set off tomorrow." - They said they would set off the next day.
"I have been with Jill since yesterday," said Joe on Friday morning.
On Friday morning Joe said he had been with Jill since yesterday.
Correct: On Friday morning Joe said he had been with Jill since the day before.
- All changes in reported speech:
Tim said he had worked with them the previous month. - "I worked with them last month," said Tim.
Reported questions + commands exercises PDF Practise questions, commands and requests in the reported speech.
Online exercises with answers:
Direct and indirect speech exercises Multiple choice and gap-filling exercises on reported statements, questions and commands.
Grammar rules PDF:
Reported speech rules PDF Changes of tenses, pronouns, time and place in reported statements, questions and commands.
English grammar PDF All PDF rules with examples on this website to download for free.
The reported speech is used if we want to report what other people said, thought or felt. We use reporting verbs such as say, tell, explain, think, hope, etc. If these verbs are in the past tense, we change the following:
a) verb tenses and verb forms
c) adverbs of time and place
A) Verb tenses
We change the tenses in the following way.
- Present simple - past simple:
"I work in York," Joe said. - Joe said (that) he worked in York.
- Present continuous - past continuous:
"We are playing a game," Jane explained. - Jane explained (that) they were playing a game.
- Past simple - past perfect simple:
"Sarah came back," I thought. - I thought (that) Sarah had come back.
- Past continuous - past perfect continuous:
"I was talking to our new neighbour," Ben told me. - Ben told me (that) he had been talking to our new neighbour.
- Present perfect simple - past perfect simple:
"I have eaten all sandwiches," he admitted. - He admitted (that) he had eaten all sandwiches.
- Present perfect continuous - past perfect continuous:
"I have been driving for three hours," he comnplained. - He complained (that) he had been driving for three hours.
- Will - would
I will wait outside the station," he reminded me. - He reminded me (that) he would wait outside the station.
Some modal verbs change in a specific way, whereas other verb forms remain the same in special cases.
Read more: Direct and indirect speech
We have to change pronouns in the reported speech to keep the same meaning.
"We are in Italy," he said. - He said they were in Italy.
"They invited us," Betty said. - Betty said they had invited them.
"I admire your new garden," she told me. - She told me she admired my new garden.
"You can take my car," Peter said. - Peter said I could take his car.
This and these
This and these are usually substituted.
"They will move this year," my mum said. - My mum said they would move that year.
"I like these shoes," Tim insisted. - Tim insisted he liked the shoes.
C) Time and place
The time expressions change as follows.
now - then, today - that day, tomorrow - the next day/the following day, the day after tomorrow - in two days' time, yesterday - the day before, the day before yesterday - two days before, next week/month - the following week/month, last week/month - the previous week/month, a year ago - a year before/the previous year
Marion: "I will do it tomorrow." - Marion said she would do it the next day.
Dan: "We arrived last week." - Dan said they had arrived the previous week.
Judith: "Brian got married a year ago." - Judith said Brian had got married a year before.
Here and there
Here usually becomes there. But sometimes we have to make different adjustments.
"I'll stay here till the evening," he said. - He said he would stay there till the evening.
In the hospital: "We'll meet here." - He said they would meet in the hospital.
- All PDF exercises and grammar rules from this website.