Must, mustn't, needn't, have to, don't have to
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Complete sentences with must or needn't and verbs from the box.
- (write, help, wash, wear, be, worry)
You ___ up. I'll do it.
I ___ my mum. She looks tired.
Use mustn't or needn't to make sentences with similar meanings.
- There are no parking places for visitors there.
Visitors ___ park their cars there.
Don't call him. He knows about it.
You ___ call him. He knows about it.
Make correct sentences with must or have to.
- The bus goes at 10.15. She ___ leave at 10 if she wants to catch it.
The British Library: Coats and bags ___ be left at the coakroom or in a locker.
Complete sentences with needn't or don't have to and verbs in brackets.
- We ___ in the office at the same time. Our boss told us. (be)
You ___ . I'll get the tickets for you. (worry)
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Must vs. have to
MUST is used to express:
1. Strong obligations which show the speaker's opinion or will.
I must practise because I want to improve.
You must help me. I can't do it on my own.
2. Strong recommendations.
You must try this cake. It's delicious.
Peter must study at university. He's so talented.
3. Certainty of the speaker.
The train must be at the station now. It's 11 o'clock.
It must be raining. I can see some drops on the window.
The opposite of must is need not (needn't).
I must help you with the bag. - No, you needn't. It isn't so heavy.
Must not (mustn't) is the opposite of may and is used to express prohibition that involves the speaker's will.
May I take this sandwich, mum? - No, you mustn't. It's for auntie Jill.
While must is used to show the speaker's opinion or will, have to expresses an external obligation based on a rule or on the authority of another person.
Sarah, you must wear a coat. It's cold today.
(Sarah's mum wants her to wear a coat. It's her personal will.)
British students have to wear uniforms.
(This obligation expresses a general rule.)
I must tidy my room.
(I want to clean my room. It is my will.)
Mum says you have to tidy your room first.
(This sentence expresses the authority of another person. It's your mum's order.)
1. Sometimes the difference between must and have to is not very important.
I must go home. - I have to go home.
2. We usually use have to in questions.
Mum, do I have to help you with the housework?
3. Must has a present form only. In all other tenses we use have to.We had to get up early yesterday.
I've never had to borrow money.
4. Don't have to and mustn't have a completely different meaning.
It's Saturday tomorrow. You don't have to get up early.
(= It is not necessary to get up early.)
You mustn't eat so much chocolate.
(= You cannot eat so much chocolate.)
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